Other examples of biases against women and minorities include
- biases with regard to admission of minority applicants to medical schools and medical residency programs
- biases with regard to evaluation of performance of women and minority medical students, residents, and staff
- biases impacting access to academic and professional mentoring for women and minorities
- biases impacting assignment of work schedules to women and minorities (with rigid, inflexible work schedules assigned to women who have family as well as professional responsibilities, and with undesirable work schedules consisting of weekend and night shifts inequitably assigned to minorities)
- biases impacting the level of salary and promotion offered to women as compared to men, and to minorities as compared to non-minorities
- biases with regard to opportunities for professional advancement
- biases with regard to recognition of academic and professional excellence.
Bias in medical research may involve the selection of subjects for study, the medical treatment or lack of treatment offered to human subjects as participants in a study, the assignment of human subjects to various study groups, the distribution of the relative risks and burdens of participation in a study to various groups of subjects, and the distribution of the potential benefits from participation to various groups of subjects. Bias in medical research may also involve the interpretation of study results, and the determination by medical journal editors of the kinds of reports that will be accepted for publication.
Bias in medicine may also involve decisions made by government agencies regarding funding of medical research, and it may also involve the reporting of study results by medical investigators, scientific journals, and other sources.
The impression that bias may occur in many ways in the field of medicine does not warrant the conclusion that the medical profession as a whole is biased against particular groups of people, however. Many (perhaps most?) physicians are unbiased in their approach to caring for and meeting the needs of patients. Many (perhaps most?) physicians are also very careful to avoid developing cognitive, social, or professional biases in their roles as care providers, educators, researchers, and administrators. However, the potential for bias to occur throughout the field of medicine reveals that it is a problem that physicians must be very mindful of and on guard against if it is to be avoided, identified, remediated, and corrected.